Cyber Security for Society

Cyber Security for Society

The Multidisciplinary Centre of Cyber Security for Society (MOBS) was established in 2023 to bring together the world class cyber security education, research and innovation that is carried out across City, University of London.


About the Centre

The Multidisciplinary Centre of Cyber Security for Society (MOBS) at City, University of London undertakes world leading research in innovation, commercialisation and policy centred around socio-technical aspects of cyber security - combining technical and human behaviour sciences to address some of the immediate enterprise and societal challenges.

The centre has specific expertise in the areas of:

  • identity management
  • FinTech
  • homomorphic encryption
  • threat intelligence
  • data privacy
  • cyber insurance.

The Centre has collaboration with BT, ATOS, Intelligent Voice, EarthID, Baseel Technology, Zhero, Portdex, Bank of England, IBM, GCHQ, IMEDIA, DCMS, OfCOM and NatCen to name a few.

In a world of fast-moving, automated attacks, intelligence is the key to being able to respond swiftly or even predictively, rather than reactively, to individual threats. As such Privacy Preserving Machine Learning (PPML) will play a critical role in gathering intelligence to safeguard our cities from cyber-attacks.

Our R&D focus will be centred on:

  • identity management
  • FinTech
  • risk assurance and security
  • reliability
  • cyber insurance
  • human-centric security
  • privacy
  • cyberbullying and online harms
  • digital justice and rights
  • policy and legal studies
  • online ethics
  • information governance.

Additionally, one of the strategic aims of the centre will be to work closely with the London Cyber Resilience Centre Home - Cyber Security Resilience Centre - London CRC to support the London based microbusinesses with their cyber security needs.



The Multidisciplinary Centre of Cyber Security for Society includes members from all Schools at City, University of London.

  • Muttukrishnan Rajarajan, Professor of Security Engineering, Schools for Science and Technology
    • Identity, privacy, fintech, internet of things, cloud, social media intelligence
  • Carrie Myers, Reader in Criminology, School of Policy and Global Affairs
    • Cyberbullying Across the Educational Lifespan and Victimisation Processes, Online harms and Violence, Image Based Abuse
  • Marco T. Bastos, Senior Lecturer in Media and Communication, School of Communication and Creativity
    • Social media bots, disinformation
  • Michael Saker, Senior Lecturer in Digital Sociology and Societal change, School of Policy and Global Affairs
    • The impact of mobile and locative technologies, alongside virtual and augmented reality, in daily life
  • Elinor Carmi, Lecturer in Data Politics and Social Justice, School of Policy and Global Affairs
    • Digital rights, digital democracy, spam, disinformation
  • Gemma Birkett, Senior Lecturer in Criminology, School of Policy and Global Affairs
    • court digitisation agenda, algorithmic justice, virtual hearings, online automated pleading
  • Peter Popov, Reader in Software Dependability, Schools for Science and Technology
    • Dependability (including cyber-security) and resilience of socio-technical systems and critical infrastructures
  • Ilir Gashi, Reader, Schools for Science and Technology
    • Anti virus products, botnets, malware, intrusion detection systems, web crawling detection
  • Nikos Komninos, Senior Lecturer, Schools for Science and Technology
    • Developing mathematical techniques for information systems protection, machine learning, intrusion detection
  • Michal Krol, Lecturer, Schools for Science and Technology
    • Privacy, identity, blockchain, distributed systems, decentralised systems
  • Iasonas Triantis, Senior Lecturer, Schools for Science and Technology
    • Bio signals, biometrics, hardware design, wearables
  • David Stuples, Professor of Cyber Warfare, Schools for Science and Technology
    • Cyber warfare, cryptography, intelligence gathering
  • Lorenzo Strigini, Professor of Systems Engineering, Schools for Science and Technology
    • Socio-technical systems, reliability and dependability
  • Pranava Madhyastha, Lecturer in Machine Learning, Schools for Science and Technology
    • Natural language processing, multimodal machine learning, foundations of machine learning
  • Andrea Baronchelli, Professor of Complexity Science, Schools for Science and Technology
    • Complex networks, data science and network science
  • Mark Broom, Professor of Mathematics, Schools for Science and Technology
    • Game Theory, biological networks
  • Feng Li, Professor of Information Management, Bayes Business School
    • Digital Game, Digital Economy, AI, organisational transformation
  • Aneesh Banerjee, Reader in Management, Bayes Business School
    • High-tech, fintech, creative industries, innovation in technology
  • Mohan Sodhi, Professor of Supply Chain, Bayes Business School
    • Supply chain risk, cyber risk on global supply chain
  • Katy Tapper, Reader in Psychology, School of Health and Psychological Sciences
    • Behaviour psychology
  • Richard Ashcroft, Professor of Bio-ethics, The City Law School
    • Ethics
  • Russell Gerrard, Associate Professor of Statistics, Bayes Business School
    • Optimal premium in insurance, Model / uncertainty modelling
  • Elaine Fahey, Professor of Law, The City Law School
    • Cybercrime, cybersecurity, EU external relations law
  • Thomas Bennett, Senior Lecturer, The City Law School
    • Privacy law, defamation law, regulation of online media, deepfakes
  • David Townend, Professor, The City Law School
    • Personal data protection; privacy and confidentiality; property in data.
  • Sona Mehta, Lecturer, The City Law School
    • Privacy, rights
  • Belen Barros Pena, Lectuer in HCI, School for Science and Technology
    • Human-centered design, participatory design, usable security, community-centric security
  • Stefan Haefliger, Professor of Strategic Management and Innovation, Bayes Business School
    • IT regulation
  • Stefania Zerbinati, Reader in Entrepreneurship, Bayes Business School
    • Entrepreneurship


Research Areas

MOBS will focus on four thematic areas of research:

Theme 1: Identity Management

Theme Lead: Professor Raj Rajarajan

Imagine a world in which your mobile device has the capacity to authenticate your identity. There is no need for passports, ID cards, car keys or computer passwords. Instead, your mobile device is capable of gathering just the necessary amount of information from your body, the surroundings and your behaviour to prove your identity and enable access. Given the widespread use of the mobile device across a surprisingly broad cross-section of society, and given the attachment often felt to the mobile phone as a personalised means of modern living, its use as a trusted proxy in identity management may hold significant appeal for citizens. The explicit aim within identity theme is to explore the reliability of identity decisions through mobile digital identity wallets that are privacy preserving, secure by design and interoperable with existing and future wallets for credential management, payments, and identity. The research will also consider a user centric co-creation approach to understand the different verticals where the identity needs to be established in real-time to get access to education, healthcare, banking and public services at the touch of a button in a seamless privacy preserving manner.

This theme sits in the context of a number of relevant government and academic reports. First, the White House report noted that for all the promises of ambient intelligence, and ubiquitous computing as technologies of the future, it is mobile platforms that have emerged as the vehicle for digital living, providing access to social, leisure, health, banking, and communications solutions through one highly valued device. Emergent capabilities of mobile devices now enable the recording of ever-more sophisticated identity measures through improved sensors. In addition, the advent of paired devices notably for mHealth, such as fitness-bands, enable the capture of a new wave of dynamic measures such as heart rate, pulse, galvanic skin response and temperature, adding to the arsenal of identity measures already available to provide password less continuous authentication. At the same time, however, research is pointing to the increasing loss of control over our mobile identities, as others collate, tag and distribute our data for us. This points to the need for a clear decentralised framework for identity management which rests on demonstrable minimum thresholds around information storage, use and custody of our digital identity.

Digital Identity Wallets

The centre is developing a Space-wallet, a first-in-class, cost-efficient, device-agnostic, fraud-proof, based on decentralised self-sovereign-identity (SSI) principles, enabling organisations to issue/request/verify users' ID/credentials in a fraud-proof and cost/time efficient manner, while empowering users with selective-data-disclosure and total privacy. Space-wallet with multi-modal and behavioural-biometrics will overcome existing authentication/password challenges and enhance usability. Cancellable-biometric-techniques with randomisation will make Space-wallet tamper-proof and privacy-preserving. Additionally, Space-Wallet will enable trusted-delegation through group-key-management for user-identified-guardians to manage ID/credentials in emergencies.

Space-wallet would enable large banking, financial-services, and insurance companies to offer fraud-resistant KYC services. Wider beneficiaries include online/digital, education, recruitment, healthcare businesses handling personally identifiable information. Space-wallet will be cloud-based, World-Wide-Web-Consortium (W3C)-compliant, decentralised-SSI wallet that enables management of digital ID/credentials from any device wallet. Using novel-amalgamation of innovative-technologies, including Distributed Ledger-Technology (DLT), cryptography, decentralised-private-encrypted-cloud storage, multi-modal-cancellable-biometrics, privacy-preserving-homomorphic encryption Space-Wallet is implemented using Web-Assembly to maintain a version-free, feature-tested, and backward-compatible digital wallet, ensuring device and platform independence.

Continuous Authentication

Mobile devices have become a ubiquitous part of modern life. This creates a need for protecting private data stored on devices. Traditional authentication techniques are knowledge-based where a user provides input such as a PIN, password or pattern. However, these have been shown to be vulnerable to smudge attacks and shoulder surfing. The inclusion of sensors in mobile devices has seen biometrics used to authenticate users. Common biometrics used to authenticate include fingerprints and facial recognition. However, these continue to suffer from spoofing attacks. Furthermore, all discussed security mechanisms so far are one-shot authentication approaches; the device does not re-authenticate after it is unlocked. Continuous authentication techniques have been proposed to alleviate issues with current authentication techniques. Such schemes create a biometric profile using sensor data such that future data can then be compared to the user profile to authenticate. Most schemes combine several modalities due to enhanced accuracy and robustness. Developing novel cancellable multimodal biometrics will provide the necessary security in future digital identity wallets.

Theme 2: FinTech

Theme Lead: Professor Feng Li, Bayes Business School

The rate with which digital technology is shaping the financial services sector accelerated dramatically following the financial crisis of 2007 and has further increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

A new wave of digital technologies such as open APIs, blockchain, artificial intelligence, cloud and quantum computing are increasingly being introduced in financial services, gradually transforming traditional products, services and value chains. These technologies have great potential to increase efficiencies in financial value chains, enhance innovation, deliver better customer experiences and better solutions to customers, and are instrumental in tackling societal challenges such as financial inclusion and climate change.

However, the increased reliance on digital technologies and the rapid digitisation of the sector introduces the possibility of new emerging risks and bottlenecks which need further investigation. As a result, further research is needed to help tackle challenges around operationalisation of ethical AI principles including safety, fairness, privacy-awareness, security, transparency, accountability, robustness, safeguarding financial data available via open APIs or blockchain platforms, and creating inclusive digital services for all. Such rigorous research will also be important to guide policy and influence the next generation of digitally native regulations in financial services.

The MOBS will focus on key areas of technology where the UK can continue building on its global leadership through innovative and translational R&D.

Responsible AI in Finance

  • How can AI be used effectively for better customer experience,
  • Fighting financial crime (AML),
  • Risk management;
  • Privacy-preserving and secure AI-driven products and services;
  • Clarity on how to maximise AI-driven innovation;
  • Challenges in using machine learning to increase the robustness and resiliency of decision making using financial data;
  • AI for the mitigation of different security risks;
  • Fairness and transparency of algorithms;
  • Explainable AI;
  • Mechanisms to deliver ethical AI that supports financial inclusion;
  • Verification and certification of black-box models;
  • Construction of synthetic databases to address privacy concerns and regulatory restrictions.

Open Banking and Embedded Finance

  • Privacy and security risks from data openness in the sector
  • How open data alters competition and transforms market architecture
  • Monetization of data and new business models in banking
  • Unintended consequences of regulation and external competition from BigTech firms
  • Concerns with data-sharing consent from consumers
  • Open API standards and related infrastructure
  • Obstacles and enablers of open finance.

Future of Money & Payments

  • Governance structures for identification and payment infrastructures;
  • Changing nature of money
  • Financial telecommunication protocols (data and interfaces) for value transfer systems to ensure interoperability
  • AML and fraud detection in payments/banking
  • Design of Central Bank-issued Digital Currencies
  • Private vs. public payment systems
  • Emergence of stablecoins
  • Digital wallets.

Decentralised Finance/Blockchain Technologies:

Effectiveness of distributed-ledger technologies to create efficiencies in financial value chains; blockchain for trade finance; zero-knowledge proof protocols and applications in finance; governance challenges and risks in blockchain infrastructures; consensus protocols in distributed databases; economic incentives in distributed networks & token-based systems; risks from the emergence of crypto-assets.

Theme 3: Cyber Insurance

(Theme Lead: Professor Vali Asimit / Professor Ian Marsh, Bayes Business School)

The modern cyber attacks and cybersecurity incidents that result in severe impacts have made evident that organizational cybersecurity management cannot rely solely on risk mitigation measures. Advanced cyber threats of high severity that prevail today include crypto jacking, malware, supply chain attacks, ransomware, business email compromise and many others. Information security management is widely accepted as a risk-based process.

Following risk assessment, organisations can decide how to manage risks by choosing amongst four strategies:

  • risk modification
  • risk retention
  • risk avoidance
  • risk sharing.

The risk sharing is the process that the organisation takes to share the risk with an external party that can most effectively manage the particular risk depending on risk evaluation. Risk sharing can be implemented using insurance to support the consequences of an incident. Although many organisations understand the importance of cyber insurance to safeguard their business loss and reputational damage, they are reluctant to take a cyber insurance. Currently the cyber insurance domain is going through foundational development, transformation and shaping it’s important to understand the drivers, practices, processes, status, stakeholders and obstacles for organisations.

In this theme of research, the centre focuses on practical challenges, including how to assess cyber risks during the underwriting process and how to calculate and receive appropriate compensations. The centre has the capability to identify the necessary baseline cyber security controls related to some of the known security attacks and provides the necessary technical support for someone to correlate the risks with the associated security controls. This can in return help the insurance underwriters to define different business models which can help the SMEs and micro-businesses to achieve the necessary cyber security insurance protection for their businesses.

Supply chain attacks

The recent Covid-19 pandemic has pushed many organisations to quickly undertake a digital transformation exercise to outsource some of their services by hosting using third party cloud providers. Those providers are in turn reliant on other service suppliers and so on. This exposure to external vendors has exposed many organisations to higher risks from cyber-attacks.

Consequently, individual cyber risks have been transformed into supply chain risks, since one successful attack can simultaneously affect multiple organisations due to the creation of complex supply chains that support the market. Hence it is important for larger organisations to monitor their supply chain carefully for any vulnerabilities through exploits and bad configurations.


Ransomware has been on the rise recently and insurance companies are struggling to protect organisations against any ransomware attacks. Hence there is an immediate need to research into ways by which organisations can build end-to-end security controls that can help to monitor for any suspicious activities.

In addition, in advanced forms of ransomware the criminals blackmail the victims not only for restoring encrypted database, but also threaten to leak the data in the public. To multiply the impact of ransomware, criminals are targeting managed service security providers, who function as a provider of software for several organisations. Thus, with a single attack they can affect hundreds or even thousands of organisations.

The average recovery from ransomware is 19 days and include reputation, revenue, money and data loss. Hence there is an increasing need to understand the cyber hygiene based on the cyber essentials framework and build on new security culture within organisations in addition to the security controls which can then help to make the necessary interventions in the unlikely event of a ransomware attack.

Theme 4: Human Centric Insider Threat and Behaviour modelling

Theme Lead: Dr Carrie Myers, School of Policy & Global Affairs

Details to follow


Ongoing and completed projects

Next generation decentralised internet

Professor Rajarajan is currently the lead investigator on an EU Horizon Europe funded project that TrustChain that is defining the building blocks of the next generation decentralised internet that is trustworthy, secure, interoperable and privacy preserving. This involves identifying innovative new technical solutions that are co-created with end-users in the design process. The project will identity 75 projects during its three year lifetime to come up with a decentralised platform that can be the backbone of the future decentralised online services.

Developing the next generation device agnostic digital wallet

Professor Rajarajan is collaborating with EarthID (Award winning Decentralized Identity Management) to develop the next generation device agnostic digital wallet that is portable and interoperable. It will also provide multimodal biometrics and quantum resistant key management that is future proof in terms of security attacks. The project is funded by Innovate UK and is working with other industrial partners including KPMG.

Encrypted text search

Professor Rajarajan is partnering with Baseel Technologies (Professional IT Consultancy) in the areas of searchable encryption, device forensics and Cyber Essentials certification. We are currently jointly developing the searchable encryption research to commercialisation and the encrypted text search product will be launched in Sept 2023.

Continuous authentication and multilayer IoT detection

Professor Rajarajan has ongoing research collaborations with British Telecommunications in the areas of identity management, IoT security and data privacy and intrusion detection. The collaborative research in the area of continuous authentication and multilayer IoT detection has led to patents and commercial interest.

Key attributes and experiences of cyberbullying

Dr Carrie-Anne Myers is currently working on an OfCOM funded project, in partnership with NatCento carry out a research project on Key attributes and experiences of cyberbullying. They are working with the anti-bullying ambassadors and the anti-bullying alliance, two charities she has long established networks with. The project involves going into schools working with children and young people to understand their definitions and experiences of cyberbullying. Full findings will be available here after the project is completed.

Content and Activity that is harmful to Children within the scope of the Online Safety Bill

Dr Carrie-Anne Myers has recently completed work for the DCMS who commissioned a project to review Content and Activity that is harmful to Children within scope of the Online Safety Bill (2022). The full findings of this research, again in collaboration with NatCen can be read here: Content and activity that is harmful for children within the scope of the Online Safety Bill [PDF]


Member publications

Visit City Research Online for a searchable repository of publications by our members.

City Research Online

Behbehani, D., Komninos, N. ORCID: 0000-0003-2776-1283, Al-Begain, K. & Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 (2023). Cloud Enterprise Dynamic Risk Assessment (CEDRA): a dynamic risk assessment using dynamic Bayesian networks for cloud environment. Journal of Cloud Computing, 12(1), 79. doi: 10.1186/s13677-023-00454-2

Haque, S., El-Moussa, F., Komninos, N. ORCID: 0000-0003-2776-1283 & Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 (2023). A Systematic Review of Data-Driven Attack Detection Trends in IoT. Sensors, 23(16), 7191. doi: 10.3390/s23167191

Boiarkin, V., Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922, Al-Zaili, J. ORCID: 0000-0003-4072-2107 & Asif, W. (2023). A novel dynamic pricing model for a microgrid of prosumers with photovoltaic systems. Applied Energy, 342, 121148. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2023.121148

Myers, C. A. ORCID: 0000-0001-8216-2844, Powell-Jones, H., Cowie, H. , Short, E., Waye, F. & Hudson, N. (2023). Violence at University Pilot Project: Student experiences of violence, harassment and discrimination. London, UK: City, University of London.

Saker, M. ORCID: 0000-0002-7414-2840, Mercea, D. ORCID: 0000-0003-3762-2404 & Myers, C. A. ORCID: 0000-0001-8216-2844 (2023). Locating Fear: A pilot study examining the use of a chatbot app to surface embodied experiences of fear in situ.. London, UK: School of Policy & Global Affairs, City University of London.

Sivaselvan, N., Vivekananda Bhat, K., Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 & Das, A. K. (2023). A New Scalable and Secure Access Control Scheme using Blockchain Technology for IoT. IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, doi: 10.1109/TNSM.2023.3246120

Sultan, A., Tahir, S., Tahir, H. , Anwer, T., Khan, F., Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 & Rana, O. F. (2022). A Novel Image-Based Homomorphic Approach for Preserving the Privacy of Autonomous Vehicles Connected to the Cloud. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, doi: 10.1109/TITS.2022.3219591

Zahoora, U., Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922, Pan, Z. & Khan, A. (2022). Zero-day Ransomware Attack Detection using Deep Contractive Autoencoder and Voting based Ensemble Classifier. Applied Intelligence, 52, pp. 13941-13960. doi: 10.1007/s10489-022-03244-6

Zahoora, U., Khan, A., Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 , Khan, S. H., Asam, M. & Jamal, T. (2022). Ransomware detection using deep learning based unsupervised feature extraction and a cost sensitive Pareto Ensemble classifier. Scientific Reports, 12, 15647. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-19443-7

Sivaselvan, N., Bhattacharyya, K., Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 , Das, A. & Rodrigues, J. (2022). SUACC-IoT: secure unified authentication and access control system based on capability for IoT. Cluster Computing, doi: 10.1007/s10586-022-03733-w

Dixit, A., Smith-Creasey, M. & Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 (2022). A Decentralized IIoT Identity Framework based on Self-Sovereign Identity using Blockchain. 2022 IEEE 47th Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN), ISSN 0742-1303 doi: 10.1109/LCN53696.2022.9843700

Myers, C. A. ORCID: 0000-0001-8216-2844 & Hudson, N. (2022). Content and Activity that is Harmful to Children within Scope of the Online Safety Bill. A Rapid Evidence Assessment. NatCen.

Tahir, S., Tahir, H., Tahir, R. , Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 & Abbas, H. (2022). Water Is a Viable Data Storage Medium: A Security and Privacy Viewpoint. Electronics, 11(5), 818. doi: 10.3390/electronics11050818

Acarali, D. ORCID: 0000-0003-1787-6300, Rajesh Rao, K., Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 , Chema, D. & Ginzburg, M. (2022). Modelling smart grid IT-OT dependencies for DDoS impact propagation. Computers & Security, 112, 102528. doi: 10.1016/j.cose.2021.102528

Balamurugan, C., Singh, K., Ganesan, G. & Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 (2021). Post-Quantum and Code-Based Cryptography—Some Prospective Research Directions. Cryptography, 5(4), 38. doi: 10.3390/cryptography5040038

Nasir, A., Qureshi, H. K., Ullah, I. & Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 (2021). EHA-BeeSensor: Hybrid Protocol for Energy Proficient Routing in IoT Network using Swarm Intelligence. 2021 IEEE 26th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD), ISSN 2378-4865 doi: 10.1109/CAMAD52502.2021.9617777

Boiarkin, V., Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 & Asif, W. (2021). Fair Pricing Model for Smart Grids. 2021 9th International Conference on Smart Grid and Clean Energy Technologies (ICSGCE), pp. 9-14. ISSN 2688-0849 doi: 10.1109/ICSGCE52779.2021.9621701

Dixit, A., Singh, A., Rahulamathavan, Y. & Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 (2021). FAST DATA: A Fair, Secure and Trusted Decentralized IIoT Data Marketplace enabled by Blockchain. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 10(4), pp. 2934-2944. doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2021.3120640

Tahir, S., Tahir, H., Sajjad, A. , Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 & Khan, F. (2021). Privacy-preserving COVID-19 Contact Tracing Blockchain. Journal of Communications and Networks, 23(5), pp. 360-373. doi: 10.23919/JCN.2021.000031

Hariri, A., Bandopadhyay, S., Rizos, A. , Dimitrakos, T., Crispo, B. & Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 (2021). SIUV: A Smart Car Identity Management and Usage Control System Based on Verifiable Credentials. Paper presented at the 36th IFIP TC 11 International Conference, SEC 2021, 22-24 Jun 2021, Oslo, Norway. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-78120-0_3

Myers, C-A. ORCID: 0000-0001-8216-2844 (2021). Cyberbullying in Schools, Workplaces and Romantic Relationships. The Many Lenses and Perspectives of Electronic Mistreatment. International Journal of Emotional Education, 13(1), pp. 104-115.

Rahulamathavan, Y., Dogan, S., Shi, X. , Lu, R., Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 & Kondoz, A. (2021). Scalar Product Lattice Computation for Efficient Privacy-Preserving Systems. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 8(3), pp. 1417-1427. doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2020.3014686

Acarali, D., Rajarajan, M., Chema, D. & Ginzburg, M. (2021). A Characterisation of Smart Grid DoS Attacks. In: Wang, D., Meng, W. & Han, J. (Eds.), Security and Privacy in New Computing Environments. SPNCE 2020. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering (344). (pp. 3-21). Cham: Springer International Publishing. ISBN 978-3-030-66922-5 doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-66922-5_1

Rao, K. R., Nayak, A., Ray, I. G. , Rahulamathavan, Y. & Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 (2021). Role recommender-RBAC: Optimizing user-role assignments in RBAC. Computer Communications, 166, 140`-153. doi: 10.1016/j.comcom.2020.12.006

Misra, S., Mukherjee, A., Roy, A. , Saurabh, N., Rahulamathavan, Y. & Rajarajan, M. (2021). Blockchain at the Edge: Performance of Resource-Constrained IoT Networks. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, 32(1), pp. 174-183. doi: 10.1109/TPDS.2020.3013892

Alharbi, A. S., Halikias, G. ORCID: 0000-0003-1260-1383, Rajarajan, M. & Yamin, M. (2021). A review of effectiveness of Saudi E-government data security management. International Journal of Information Technology, 13, pp. 573-579. doi: 10.1007/s41870-021-00611-3

Dixit, A., Asif, W. & Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 (2020). Smart-Contract Enabled Decentralized Identity Management Framework for Industry 4.0. IECON 2020 The 46th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, pp. 2221-2227. ISSN 1553-572X

Altamimi, F., Asift, W. & Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 (2020). DADS: Decentralized (Mobile) Applications Deployment System Using Blockchain. Paper presented at the 2020 International Conference on Computer, Information and Telecommunication Systems (CITS), 5-7 Oct 2020, Hangzhou, China. doi: 10.1109/CITS49457.2020.9232506

Boiarkin, V., Asif, W. & Rajarajan, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5814-9922 (2020). Decentralized Demand Response Power Management System for Smart Grids. 2020 IEEE 8th International Conference on Smart Energy Grid Engineering (SEGE), ISSN 2575-2677 doi: 10.1109/SEGE49949.2020.9182024

Acarali, D., Rajarajan, M., Chema, D. & Ginzburg, M. (2020). Modelling DoS Attacks & Interoperability in the Smart Grid. 2020 29th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), doi: 10.1109/icccn49398.2020.9209671

Cowie, H. & Myers, C-A. ORCID: 0000-0001-8216-2844 (2020). The impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic on the mental health and well‐being of children and young people. Children & Society, doi: 10.1111/chso.12430