Centre for Applied Vision Research
  1. Visual Neuroscience and Psychophysics
  2. Ocular Optics and Instrumentation
  3. Ophthalmic Assessments and Patient Outcomes following Ophthalmic Interventions
  4. Visual Development and Plasticity
  5. Ophthalmic Public Health
  6. Measurement Techniques in Vision

Ophthalmic Public Health Group

The interests of ophthalmic public health group lie primarily in chronic eye diseases in the elderly, (particularly glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and visual disorders in children. The current research of the ophthalmic public health research group covers improved methods of screening to identify risk factors of early disease, and the effective management and prevention of ophthalmic conditions. There is a particular emphasis on the evaluation of models of eye care service delivery and research. The group combine a variety of research methodologies, which include research synthesis in the form of systematic reviews and primary research which typically uses a mixed methods approach.

This group belongs to both the Centre for Public Health Research and the Centre for Applied Vision Research.


PhD students

  • Trishal Boodhna
  • Irene Ctori
  • Priya Dabasia
  • Bruno Fidalgo
  • Yvonne Gerard
  • Helen Gibbons 
  • Hanna Gillespie-Gallery
  • Vera Moenter


2014-2016. Rapid trials to inform clinical decision making in the NHS. NIHR Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme. Garway-Heath, D., Crabb, D. £307,628

2013-14. What type of visual field defects are hazardous for driving? International Glaucoma Association. Crabb, D. £25,000

2012-2015. Enhanced Scheme Evaluation Project. College of Optometrists. Lawrenson, J., Harper, R., Edgar D . £294.287

2012-2015. Equipment and Eyecare. College of Optometrists and Optivue Inc. Lawrenson. J ., Garway-Heath, D. £92,104

2012-2013. Proof of Concept for â Eyecatcherâ: Detecting and monitoring age-related visual disease. Fight for Sight. Crabb, D . £52,472

2012-2013 Development of a web-based interactive tool for the assessment of clinical decision-making skills. City University London, Learning Development Centre. Lawrenson. J and and Edgar, D . D. £9650

2012-2014 The prevalence of visual impairment in people with dementia. NIHR. Bowen, M., Edgar, D. , Haque, S., Hancock, B., Buchanan, S., Pickett, J., Iliffe, S., Clarke, M., Taylor, J-P., Maskell, S. £447,221

2011-14 Measurements in glaucoma: What matters to the patient? Merck Investigator Studies Program. Crabb, D. £114,000

2011-14 Complex data management, knowledge extraction and computerised clinical decision support for chronic disease Management. NIHR Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship Scheme Zhu, H, Crabb, D. £292,833

2011-14 Frequency of visual field testing when monitoring patients newly diagnosed with glaucoma NIHR Health Services and Delivery Research (HS&DR) Program. Crabb, D. , Bronze, C., Garway-Heath, D, Hernndez, R, Lemer, C. £295,000

2011-13 Curriculum review for evidence-based practice in Australasian optometry. Australian Learning and Teaching Council. Suttle C and Jalbert I. AUD217,000

2009-2011. Development of Clinical Management Guidelines for Optometrists. College of Optometrists. Lawrenson, J. ,Buckley, R. £48,000

2009-12. Optimal Surveillance Regimes for Individuals with Ocular Hypertension (OHT): Modelling and economic evaluation. NIHR Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme. Burr, J.M., Botello-Pinzon, P., Takwoingi, Y., Hernández, R., Vazquez-Montes, M., Elders, A., Asaoka, R., Banister, K., van der Schoot, J., Fraser, C., King, A., Lemij, H., Sanders, R., Vernon, S., Tuulonen, A., Kotecha, A., Glasziou, P., Garway-Heath, D., Crabb, D., Vale, L., Azuara-Blanco, A., Perera, R., Ryan, M., Deeks, J., Cook, J. £349,856

2008-2011. A study of optometrist case-finding for primary open angle glaucoma. Pfizer Inc. Investigator. Lawrenson, J. Edgar, D. , Kotecha, A., Murdoch, I. £383,290

2008-10 Developing the intervention & outcome components of a proposed RCT of screening for open angle glaucoma (OAG). Medical Research Council (MRC). Tuulonen,A., Garway-Heath, D., Viswanathan, A., McPherson, S., Bativala, R., Johnston, M., Burr, J. Francis J, Crabb, D . £390,988

2008-2010 Eye Care Liaison Officer Impact Project. RNIB. Subramanian, A., Conway, M. £57,000

2007-2012. Development of a Medicines Support Unit for Optometrists. Central LOC Fund/ College of Optometrists. Lawrenson, J. £99,697



McBain, Hayley B; MacKenzie, Kelly A; Au, Charis; Hancox, Joanne; Ezra, Daniel G; Adams, Gillian GW; Newman, Stanton P; (2014) Factors associated with quality of life and mood in adults with strabismus. British Journal of Ophthalmology. bjophthalmol-2013-304220

Burr JM, Hernandez R, Ramsay CR, Prior ME, Campbell SE, Azuara-Blanco A, Campbell MK, Francis JJ, Vale L (2013). Is it worthwhile to conduct a randomised controlled trial of glaucoma screening in the United Kingdom? Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, E-pub DOI: 10.1177/1355819613499748

Crabb D.P. , Smith N.D., Glen F.C., Burton R., Garway-Heath D.F. (2013). How does glaucoma look?: patient perception of visual field loss. Ophthalmology 120: 1120â 1126.

Dabasia P., Edgar D.F ., Lawrenson J.G.. (2013). Methods of measurement of the the anterior chamber angle. Part 1: angle closure glaucoma and gonioscopy. Optometry in Practice. 14:107-14

Errington JA, Menant JC, Suttle CM, Bruce J, Asper LJ. (2013) The effects of vertical yoked prisms on gait. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 54(6):3949-56.

Evans J.R., Lawrenson J.G . (2013) Dietary interventions for AMD: what do we know and what do we not know? British Journal of Ophthalmology 97:1089-90.

Fung, S.S.M., Lemer, C., Russell, R.A., Malik, R., Crabb, D.P. (2013). Are practical recommendations practiced? A national multi-centre cross-sectional study on frequency of visual field testing in glaucoma. British Journal of Ophthalmology 97: 843â847

Garway-Heath D.F., Lascaratos G., Bunce C., Crabb D.P., Russell R.A., Shah A., and United Kingdom Glaucoma Treatment Study Investigators (2013). The United Kingdom Glaucoma Treatment Study: a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial: design and methodology. Ophthalmology 120: 68â76.

Lawrenson J. (2013). Glaucoma: the challenge of early case detection. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 33:3-6.

Lawrenson J.G., Evans J.R. (2013) Advice about diet and smoking for people with or at risk of age-related macular degeneration: a cross-sectional survey of eye care professionals in the UK. BMC Public Health .13: 564.

Malik, R., Baker, H., Russell, R.A., Crabb, D.P . (2013). A survey of attitudes of glaucoma subspecialists in England and Wales to visual field test intervals in relation to NICE guidelines. BMJ Open 3:e002067.

Prior M, Francis JJ, Augusto Azuara-Blanco A, Anand N, Burr JM, for the Glaucoma screening Platform Study group (2013). Why do people present late with advanced glaucoma? A qualitative interview study. British Journal of Ophthalmology 2013. DOI:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2013-303813

Ratnarajan G., Newsom W., Vernon S.A., Fenerty C., Henson D., Spencer F., Wang Y., Harper R., McNaught A., Collins L., Parker M., Lawrenson J., Hudson R., Khaw P.T., Wormald R., Garway-

Heath D., Bourne R. (2013) The effectiveness of schemes that refine referrals between primary and secondary care-the UK experience with glaucoma referrals: the Health Innovation & Education Cluster (HIEC) Glaucoma Pathways Project. BMJ Open. 21; 3.

Rauscher, F.G., Chisholm, C.M., Edgar, D.F ., Barbur, J.L. (2013) Assessment of novel binocular colour, motion and contrast tests in glaucoma. Cell and Tissue Research 353, 297-310.

Suttle C, Jalbert I and Alnahedh T (2013) Re: The evidence in evidence-based practice. Why the confusion? Clin Exp Optom. 96(1):130.


Campbell S., Azuara-Blanco A., Campbell M.K., Francis J.J. , Greene A., Ramsay C.R., Burr J. (2012) Developing the specifications of a glaucoma screening intervention: A Delphi approach. BMC Health Services Research 2012, 12:447. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-447.

Crabb D.P ., Garway-Heath D.F. (2012). Intervals between visual field tests when monitoring the glaucomatous patient: wait-and-see approach. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 53: 2770â2776.

Evans J.R., Lawrenson J.G. (2012). Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for slowing the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews . 11:CD000254

Evans J.R., Lawrenson J.G. (2012). Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for preventing age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database of Sysematic. Reviews. 6:CD000253

Fowler D., Szomszor M., Hammond S., Lawrenson J., Kostkova P. Engagement in Online Medical Communities of Practice in Healthcare: Analysis of Messages and Social Networks. Electronic Healthcare. (2012). Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering . 91:154-157

Huntjens, B., Charman, W.N., Workman, H., Hosking, S.L., O'Donnell, C. Short-term stability in refractive status despite large fluctuations in glucose levels in diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2. PLoS One. 7(12):

Lawrenson J.G., Evans J.R. (2012). Omega 3 fatty acids for preventing and slowing the progression of age-related macular degeneration. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 11:CD010015.

McCabe A., Awan J.A., Walsh C.D., Brown M.D., Lawrenson J.G. , Lawrenson A.L., Wakai A. (2012). Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for analgesia in traumatic corneal abrasions (protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4: CD009781.

Prior M, Burr JM, Ramsay CR, Jenkinson D, Campbell S, Francis JJ, for the Glaucoma screening Platform Study group. Evidence base for an intervention to maximise uptake of glaucoma testing: a theory-based cross-sectional survey. BMJ Open 2012;2. e000710.

Saunders L.J., Russell R.A., Crabb D.P . (2012). Practical landmarks for visual field disability in glaucoma. British Journal of Ophthalmoogy. 96:1185-9

Sharma A., Jofre-Bonet M., Panca M., Lawrenson J.G., Murdoch I. (2012) economic comparison of hospital-based and community-based glaucoma clinics. Eye 26:967-71

Suttle, C.M ., Jalbert, I., Alnahedh, T. (2012). Examining the evidence base used by optometrists in Australia and New Zealand. Clinical & Experimental Optometry 95:28-36.

Theodossiades J., Myint, J., Murdoch I.E., Edgar D.F ., Lawrenson J.G. (2012). Does self-reported practice predict actual practice in glaucoma detection? Ophthalmic & Physiological Opics. 32:234-41


Crossland, M.D., Crabb, D.P., Rubin GS. (2011). Task specific fixation behavior in macular disease. Investigative Ophthalmolology & Visual Science 52:411-6

Ezra, D.G., James, H., Minakaran, N., Dart, J., Newman, S (2011). Emotional functioning after keratoplasty. Ophthalmology 118(4) 786-7.86E+04Glaucoma Platform Study Group, Burr J.M., Campbell M.K., Campbell S.E., Francis J.J., Hernandez R.A., Greene A., Hopkins D., McCann S.K., Vale L.D. (2011). Developing the clinical components of a complex intervention for a glaucoma screening trial: A mixed methods study. BMC Medical Research Methodology . 11:54.

Glen, F.C., Crabb, D.P., Garway-Heath DF. (2011) The direction of research into visual disability and quality of life in glaucoma. BMC Ophthalmol. 11:19

James, H., Jenkinson, E., Harrad, R., Ezra, D.G., Newman, S. (2011) Appearance concerns in ophthalmic patients. Eye. 25(8) 1039-1044

Myint J., Edgar D.F. , Kotecha A., Murdoch I.E., Lawrenson J.G . (2011). A National Survey of Diagnostic Tests Reported by UK Community Optometrists for the Detection of Chronic Open Angle Glaucoma. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics 31:353-9

Parkins, D.J., Edgar D.F. (2011) Comparison of the effectiveness of two enhanced glaucoma referral schemes. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics 31: 343-52.

Sharma A., Lawrenson, J.G. , Murdoch I. (2011) Clinical governance and optometry: a review. Optometry in Practice 12:79-86

Suttle, C.M., Melmoth, D.R., Finlay, A.L., Sloper, J.J., Grant, S. (2011). Eye-hand coordination skills in children with and without amblyopia. Investigative Ophthalmolology & Visual Science 52:1851-64.


Crabb DP , Smith ND, Rauscher FG, Chisholm CM, Barbur JL, Edgar DF , Garway-Heath DF. (2010) Exploring eye movements in patients with glaucoma when viewing a driving scene. PLoS ONE 5(3): e9710. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009710

Edgar, D.F. , Romanay T., Lawrenson, J.G. , Myint J. (2010) Increase in the number of referrals from optometrists following the publication of the April 2009 NICE guidelines for the diagnosis and management of COAG and OHT in England and Wales. Optometry in Practice 11:33-38

Myint J., Edgar DF , Kotecha A., Murdoch I.E., Lawrenson, J.G . (2010) Barriers to the detection of primary open angle glaucoma as perceived by community optometrists in the United Kingdom. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics 30:847-53

Myint, J., Edgar, D.F ., Kotecha, A., Crabb, D.P ., Lawrenson JG. (2010). Development of a competency framework for optometrists with a specialist interest in glaucoma. Eye 24:1509-14.

Shah R, Edgar D.F., Evans B.J. (2010). A comparison of standardised patients, record abstraction and clinical vignettes for the purpose of measuring clinical practice. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics 30:209-24.

Suttle, C.M. (2010). Active treatments for amblyopia: a review of the methods and evidence base. Clinical & Experimental Optometry 93:287-99.


Shah R., Edgar D.F., Evans B.J. (2009). How well does record abstraction quantify the content of optometric eye examinations in the UK? Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics 29:383-96

Shah R., Edgar D.F., Harle D.E., Weddell L., Austen D.P., Burghardt D., Evans B.J. (2009).The content of optometric eye examinations for a presbyopic patient presenting with symptoms of flashing lights. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics 29:105-26.

Shah R., Edgar D.F., Rabbetts R., Harle D.E, Evans B.J. (2009). Standardized patient methodology to assess refractive error reproducibility. Optometry & Visual Science 86:517-28

Shah R., Edgar D.F., Spry, P.G., Harper, R.A., Kotecha, A., Rughani S., Evans, B.J. (2009). Glaucoma detection: the content of optometric eye examinations for a presbyopic patient of African racial descent. British Journal of Ophthalmology 93:492-6.

Sharma A., Joffre-Bonnet, M., Panca M, Lawrenson, J.G., Murdoch I. (2009) Hospital-based glaucoma clinics-what are the costs to patients? Eye 24:999-1005


Chisholm ,C.M., Rauscher, F.G., Crabb, D.C ., Davies, L.N, Dunne, M.C., Edgar, D.F ., Harlow, J.A., James-Galton, M., Petzold, A., Plant, G.T., Viswanathan, A.C., Underwood, G.J., Barbur, J.L. Assessing visual fields for driving in patients with paracentral scotomata. British Journal of Ophthalmology 92:225-30

Needle J., Petchey R., Lawrenson J.G. (2008). A survey of the scope of therapeutic practice by UK optometrists and attitudes to an extended prescribing role. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics 28:193-203

Owen, V.M.F., Crabb, D.P ., White E.T., Viswanathan, A.C., Garway-Heath, D.F, Hitchings, R.A. (2008). Glaucoma and fitness to drive: using binocular visual fields to predict a milestone to blindness Investigative Ophthalmolology & Visual Science 49: 2449-2455.

Shah R., Edgar D.F ., Rabbetts R., Blakeney S.L., Charlesworth P., Harle D.E., Evans B.J. (2008).The content of optometric eye examinations for a young myope with headaches. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics 28:404-21.