Centre for Applied Vision Research
  1. Visual Neuroscience and Psychophysics
  2. Ocular Optics and Instrumentation
  3. Ophthalmic Assessments and Patient Outcomes following Ophthalmic Interventions
  4. Visual Development and Plasticity
  5. Ophthalmic Public Health
  6. Measurement Techniques in Vision

Measurement Techniques in Vision

The group's research focuses on measurement in vision including: perimetry, visual fields, imaging, visual function, eye movements, quality of life measures, reading performance, and medical statistics. The group contains a lively mixture of optometrists, vision scientists, ophthalmologists, psychologists, mathematicians and computer scientists that have produced 43 outputs in A or A* ERA ranked journals since 2010 and gained over £1.4 million since 2008. One of the prominent diseases studied is glaucoma with a particular interest in relating the different stages in the disease process to patient's visual disability. Other areas of interest include improving the clinical measurements used for macular disease and diabetic retinopathy.


PhD Students

  • Luke Saunders
  • Vera Moenter
  • Trushal Boodnah
  • Bruno Fidalgo
  • Ahmed Abdul-Hay
  • Irene Ctori


2013-2016, Multispectral Imaging Retinal Densitometer Awarded to D Melotte, A Binns, T Margrain, C Bailey, D Atkinson, S Todd. NIHR £844,019

2012-2014, Evaluating the Revision Programme. Awarded to C Dickinson, A Subramanian and R Harper Macular Disease Society £36,217

2012-2015, Low-Level Night-Time Light Therapy for Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Awarded to A Binns, T Margrain and C Bailey The College of Optometrists £53,000

2012, A Systematic Review of Eccentric Viewing Training Awarded to A Binns and T Margrain. The Macular Society £17,532

2012-2015, An investigation of the role of hypoxia as a functional biomarker for Age-Related Macular Degeneration Awarded to A Binns and T Margrain Cardiff University Endowment Studentship £26,323

2011-2014, Complex data management, knowledge extraction and computerised clinical decision support for chronic disease Management (80%FEC) Dr Haogang Zhu and D Crabb NIHR Post-Doctoral Research Fellowship Scheme £292,833

2011, Vertical Reading in people with homonymous hemianopia Awarded to A Subramanian College of Optometrists £1,550

2011-2015, Development of an imaging retinal densitometer Awarded to T Margrain, A Binns and C Tucker Cardiff University President's Research Studentship £53,000

2010-2011, Development of an imaging retinal densitometer Dr David Atkinson (UKATC) Co-Investigators: Awarded to D Atkinson, A Binns, T Margrain, C Bailey, D Melotte and S Todd. NIHR £86,600

2010-2013, Application of Psychophysical Models to Visual Disorders (approx. 10% FEC) Dr W Swanson ( University of Indiana USA) and D Crabb US National Institute for Health (NIH) £1,480,000

2010-2011, Eyecatcher Awarded to D. Crabb City University Research Competition £40,000

2010-2014, Unrestricted donation to research laboratory Allergan Inc., Awarded to D. Crabb Irvine CA, US. £35,000

2009-2011, The role of the Eye Care Liaison Officer. Awarded to A Subramanian & M Conway RNIB £56,739

2009, Vertical Reading in normally sighted adults. Awarded to A Subramanian Royal Society £2,300

2009-2011, How does glaucoma look? Awarded to D. Crabb International Glaucoma Association £21,216

2009-2012, Visual impairment and Quality of Life in glaucoma (charity) Awarded to D.Crabb NHS Moorfields Eye Hospital Special Trustees. £47,000

2009-2011, eyeVisor: a comprehensive portable visual function testing system. Awarded to D.Crabb and S Grupetta Emerald Fund Standard Grant, London Development Agency. £40,000

2009, Unrestricted donation to research laboratory. Awarded to D Crabb Allergan Inc., Irvine CA, US. £20,000

2008-2012, Visual disability in glaucoma (100% FEC) Awarded to D. Crabb Pfizer Inc., New York, US. £68,427

2008-2009, Detecting Glaucoma: PC based perimetry. (80% FEC). Awarded to D.Crabb NHS New and Emerging Applications of Technology (NEAT) Awards £58,646

2008-2011, Biological shape analyses of optic nerve head images (Charity) Awarded to DP Crabb and S Vernon (University of Nottingham) UK Guide Dogs for the Blind Association. £156,145



Asaoka, R., Russell, R.A., Malik, R., Garway-Heath, D.F., and Crabb, D.P. (2013). Five-year forecasts of the Visual Field Index (VFI) with binocular and monocular visual fields. Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 251, 1335-1341

Glen, F.C., Smith, N.D., and Crabb, D.P. (2013). Saccadic eye movements and face recognition performance in patients with central glaucomatous visual field defects. Vision Res. 82, 42-51

Khawaja, A.P., Crabb, D.P., and Jansonius, N.M. (2013). The role of ocular perfusion pressure in glaucoma cannot be studied with multivariable regression analysis applied to surrogates. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 4619-4620

Marín-Franch, I., Malik, R., Crabb, D.P., and Swanson, W.H. (2013). Choice of statistical method influences apparent association between structure and function in glaucoma. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54, 4189-4196


Asaoka, R., Russell, R.A., Malik, R., Crabb, D.P., and Garway-Heath, D.F. (2012). A novel distribution of visual field test points to improve the correlation between structure-function measurements. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53, 8396-8404

Binns, A., Bunce,C., Dickinson, C., Harper, R., Tudor-Edwards,R., Woodhouse, M., Linck, P., Suttie, A., Jackson, J., Lindsay, J., Wolffsohn, J., Hughes, L., Margrain, T. (2012) How Effective is Low Vision Service Provision? A Systematic Review. Survey of Ophthalmology. 57: 34-65

Burton, R., Crabb, D.P., Smith, N.D., Glen, F.C., and Garway-Heath DF. (2012) Glaucoma and reading: exploring the effects of contrast lowering of text. Optom Vis Sci. 89:1282-7

Conway ML, Thomas J, Subramanian A (2012) Is the Aligning Prism Measured with the Mallett Unit Correlated with Fusional Vergence Reserves? PloS ONE 10.1371/journal.pone.0042832

Gaffney, A., Binns, A., Margrain, T. (2012) Aging and Cone Dark Adaptation. Optometry and Vision Science. 89:1219-1224

Gillespie-Gallery, H., Conway, M. L., & Subramanian, A. (2012). Are rehabilitation services for patients in UK eye clinics adequate? A survey of eye care professionals. Eye,26(10), 1302-1309

Glen, F.C., Crabb, D.P., Smith, N.D., Burton, R. and Garway-Heath DF. (2012) Do patients with glaucoma have difficulty recognizing faces? Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 53: 3629-37

Goh, D., Subramanian, A. (2012) Visual Hallucinations and eye disease. Why Charles Bonnet Syndrome is important to eye care practitioners? Optometry in Practice 13(3) 127-138

Huntjens B, Charman WN, Workman H, Hosking SL, O'Donnell C (2012): Short-term stability in refractive status despite large fluctuations in glucose levels in diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2. PLoS One 2012; 7(12): e52947

Pardhan, S., Gonzalez-Alvarez, C., & Subramanian, A. (2012). Target contrast affects reaching and grasping in the visually impaired subjects. Optom Vis Sci, 89(4), 426-434

Pardhan, S., Gonzalez-Alvarez, C., Subramanian, A., & Chung, S. T (2012). How do flanking objects affect reaching and grasping behavior in participants with macular disorders? Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 53(10), 6687-6694

Russell, R.A., Crabb, D.P., Malik, R., and Garway-Heath, D.F. (2012) The Relationship between Variability and Sensitivity in Large-Scale Longitudinal Visual Field Data. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 53: 5985-90

Russell, R.A., Malik, R., Chauhan, B.C., Crabb, D.P., and Garway-Heath, D.F. (2012) Improved estimates of visual field progression using bayesian linear regression to integrate structural information in patients with ocular hypertension. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 53:2760-9

Smith, N.D., Crabb, D.P., Glen, F.C., Burton, R., and Garway-Heath D. F. (2012) Eye Movements in Patients with Glaucoma When Viewing Images of Everyday Scenes. Seeing Perceiving 25:471-492.

Smith, N.D., Glen, F.C., and Crabb, D.P. (2012) Eye movements during visual search in patients with glaucoma. BMC Ophthalmol. 12:45


Asaoka, R., Crabb, D.P., Yamashita, T., Russell, R.A., Xing Wang, Y and Garway-Heath DF (2011). Patients have two eyes! Binocular versus better eye visual field indices. (2011). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:7007-11

Bergin, C., Redmond, T.R., Nathwani, N., Verdon-Roe, G.M., Crabb, D.P., Anderson, R.S., and Garway-Heath, D.F (2011). The effect of induced intraocular straylight on perimetric tests. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:3676-82

Binns, A.M., Mortlock, K.E., North, R.V. (2011) The relationship between stimulus intensity and response amplitude for the photopic negative response of the flash electroretinogram. Documenta Ophthalmologica. 122: 39-52

Chadha, R. K., & Subramanian, A. (2011). The effect of visual impairment on quality of life of children aged 3-16 years. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 95(5), 642-645

Dickinson, C., Linck, P., Tudor-Edwards,R., Binns, A., Bunce,C., Harper, R., Jackson, J., Lindsay, J., Suttie, ., Wolffsohn, J., Woodhouse, M., Margrain, T. (2011) A Profile of Low Vision Services in England: The Low Vision Service Model Evaluation (LOVSME) project. Eye. 25: 829-831

Gaffney, A., Binns, A.M., Margrain T.H. (2011) The repeatability of the Goldmann-Weekers adaptometer for measuring cone adaptation in normal subjects. Documenta Ophthalmologica. 122: 71-75

Gaffney, A., Binns, A.M., Margrain T.H. (2011) The topography of cone dark adaptation deficits in age-related maculopathy. Optometry and Vision Science. 88: 1080-87

Pardhan, S., Gonzalez-Alvarez, C., & Subramanian, A. (2011). How does the presence and duration of central visual impairment affect reaching and grasping movements? Opthal Physl Opt, 31(3), 233-239

Russell, R. A., and Crabb, D.P. (2011). On alternative methods for measuring visual field decay: Tobit linear regression. (2011). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:9539-40

Smith, N.D., Crabb, D.P., and Garway-Heath, D.F (2011). An exploratory study of visual search performance in glaucoma. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 31:225-32

Wood, A., Binns, A., Margrain, T., Drexler, W., Povazay, B., Esmaeelpour, M., Sheen, N. (2011) Retinal and choroidal thickness in early age-related macular degeneration. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 152: 1030-1038

Wood, A., Margrain, T. Binns, A.M. (2011) The effect of bleach duration and age on the ERG photostress test. Graefes Clinical Archives of Ophthalmology. 249: 1359-65

Zhu, H., Crabb, D.P., Fredette, M.J., Anderson, D.R., and Garway-Heath DF. (2011). Quantifying discordance between structure and function measurements in the clinical assessment of glaucoma. Arch Ophthalmol. 129(9):1167-74

Zhu, H., Crabb, D.P., Schlottmann, P.G., Wollstein, G. and Garway-Heath DF. (2011). Aligning scan acquisition circles in optical coherence tomography images of the retinal nerve fibre layer. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 30(6):1228-38


Artes, P.H., and Crabb, D.P. (2010). Estimating Normative Limits of Heidelberg Retina Tomograph Optic Disc Rim Area with Quantile Regression. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51: 355-361

Mortlock, K.E., Binns, A.M.*, Aldebasi, Y.H., North, R.V. (2010) Inter-subject, inter-ocular and inter-session repeatability of the Photopic Negative Response of the Electroretinogram recorded using DTL and skin electrodes. Documenta Ophthalmologica. 121:123-134

O'Leary, N., Crabb, D.P., and Garway-Heath, D.F (2010). An in silico model of scanning laser tomography image series: an alternative benchmark for the specificity of progression algorithms. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:6472-82

O'Leary, N., Crabb, D.P., Mansberger, S.L., Fortune, B., Twa, M.D., Lloyd, M.J., Kotecha, A., Garway-Heath, D.F., Cioffi, G.A. and Johnson C.A. (2010). Glaucomatous Progression in Series of Stereoscopic Photographs and Heidelberg Retina Tomograph Images. Arch Ophthalmol. 128: 560-568

Zhu, H., Crabb, D.P., Schlottmann, P.G., Ho, T. and Garway-Heath DF. (2010). Floating Canvas: quantification of 3D retinal structures from spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Opt Express 18:24595-610

Zhu, H., Crabb, D.P., Schlottmann, P.G., Lemij, H., Reus, N.J., Healey, P.R., Mitchell, P., Ho, T. and Garway-Heath DF. (2010). Predicting Visual Function from the Measurements of Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Structure. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:5657-66


Crabb, D.P. (2009) Visual Fields. In Glaucoma. (Eds T. Shaarawy, M.B. Sherwood, R.A. Hitchings and J.G. Crowston) Elsevier, Edinburgh. Ch.10

Kotecha, A., Crabb, D.P., Spratt, A., and Garway-Heath, D.F. (2009). The relationship between diurnal variations in intraocular pressure measurements and central corneal thickness and corneal hysteresis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50: 4229-4236

Kotecha, A., O'Leary, N., Melmoth, D., Grant, S., and Crabb, D.P. (2009). The functional consequences of glaucoma for eye-hand co-ordination. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50: 203-213.

Subramanian, A., & Pardhan, S. (2009). Repeatability of reading ability indices in subjects with impaired vision. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 50(8), 3643-3647

Tumlinson, A.R., Hermann, B., Hofer, B., Margrain T.H., Binns, A.M., Drexler, W (2009) Techniques for extraction of depth-resolved in vivo human retinal intrinsic optical signals with optical coherence tomography. Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology. 53: 315-326

Wall, M., Johnson, C.A., Kardon, R.H., and Crabb, D.P. (2009). Use of a Continuous Probability Scale to Display Visual Field Damage. Arch Ophthalmol. 127: 749-756


Bergin, C., Garway-Heath, D.F, and Crabb, D.P. (2008) Evaluating the effect of the new alignment algorithm for longitudinal series of Heidelberg retina tomography images. Acta Ophthalmol 86: 207-214