Violence and Society Centre
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Violence and Society

Projects

The Violence and Society Centre runs multiple research projects.

Selected externally funded research projects are listed below.

Violence, Health and Society

Start Date: 1 April 2020

End Date: 17 December 2020

Title: Violence, Health and Society

Total Amount: GDP 50,000

Funder: UK Prevention Research Partnership

Abstract: Violence causes harms to health, especially long-lasting harms to mental health. Mental health is significantly impacted by violence. These harms to mental health can be more long-lasting than the immediate harms to physical health. They have consequences that reverberate through a person's life impacting on their functioning in society, with still further consequences. Reducing such 'upstream' determinants of poor mental health would significantly improve the health of the population. Investigating the effectiveness of potential interventions to reduce exposure to violence is central to the proposal.

Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby

Co-applicant(s): Sally McManus, Louise Howard, Brian Francis, Elaine Arnull, Sian Oram, Leonie Tanczer, Stuart Kirby, Debra Salmon, Janet Bowstead, Les Humphreys

Study on the economic, social and human costs of trafficking

Start Date: 21 May 2019

End Date: 20 February 2020

Title: Study on the economic, social and human costs of trafficking

Total Amount: GBP 270,764.17

Funder: European Commission: Directorate-General Migration and Home Affairs

Abstract: Trafficking in human beings harms not only victims but society as a whole.  This project will estimate the costs to society within the European Union Member States.  All forms of trafficking of women, men and children will be addressed, whether for sexual exploitation, labour exploitation, forced begging or domestic servitude. The social costs accounted for are; specialised services; health services; law enforcement; lost economic output and intangibles (measured as quality adjusted life years).  This establishes a rigorous evidence base and expands the theory on trafficking in human beings and society.

Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (City, University of London)

Research Team: Patricia Bell, Janet Bowstead, Gene Feder, Hilary Fisher, Stuart Kirby, Sally McManus, Stephen Morris, Sian Oram, Jessica Phoenix

In collaboration with: Kings College London, University of Bristol, University of Cambridge and NatCen Social Research

Key Outputs: In process.

Violence, abuse and mental health. Opportunities for change

Start Date: 1 November 2018

End Date: 31 October 2022

Title: Violence, abuse and mental health: Opportunities for change

Total Amount: GBP 1,000,000

Funder: UK Research and Innovation, Economic and Social Research Council

Abstract: This large interdisciplinary research project’s main objective is to reduce the prevalence of mental health problems through addressing associated violence and abuse. The Violence and Society Centre is responsible for the measurement stream (GBP 65,000), which will mobilise a gender-sensitive framework for measuring violence against women and men.

Principle-Investigator: Louise Howard (King’s College London)

Co-applicant(s): Sylvia Walby (City, University of London), Jude Towers (Liverpool John Moores University), Ravinder Thiara (University of Warwick), Sian Oram (King's College London), Alana Harris (King's College London), George Danezis (University College London), Angela Sweeney (St George's University of London), Seena Fazel (University of Oxford), Rachel Hewitt (University of Oxford).

Key Outputs: In process.

Anneliese Maier Research Award

Start Date: 1 April 2018

End Date: 30 March 2023

Title: Anneliese Maier Research Award

Total Amount: EUR 250,000

Funder: Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung

Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby

Abstract: Prof. Sylvia Walby was one of eight researchers selected for the prestigious Anneliese Maier Research Award in 2018, which is reserved for “outstanding humanities scholars and social scientists”. The prize money is to finance research collaboration with specialist colleagues in Germany over a five-year period. The programme of work is to re-work a theory of society that better takes account of violence and gender inequality. Specific contributions will be made to theorising society as a system, developing the conceptual distinctions between varieties of gender regimes, analysing the trafficking in human beings, and the theorisation of the relationship of violence and society.

Key Outputs: In process.

Study on the data analysis of trafficking in human beings

Start Date: 11 June 2018

End Date: 10 October 2018

Title: Study on the data analysis of trafficking in human beings

Total Amount: EUR 100,000

Funder: European Commission

Abstract: This project analyses and reports on recent data collected on human trafficking by the European Commission. Covering both victims and trafficking perpetrators, it discusses gender, age and form of trafficking, as well as the source and recruiting country for victims. Perpetrator data discussed includes prosecutions and convictions. The project also reports on the robustness of Commission data, and what can and cannot be gleaned from the data. It updates earlier Commission reports published by Eurostat. Principle-Investigator: Brian Francis (University of Lancaster)

Co-applicant(s): Sylvia Walby, Becky Pattinson, Amy Elliott, Valmira Hoti, Jessica Phoenix, Rachel Verrall, Moira Peelo (at time of study, all at Lancaster).

Key Outputs: Francis, B., et al. (2018). Data collection on trafficking in human beings in the EU: Final report. Brussels: European Commission. ISBN 978-92-79-96706-1 DOI:10.2837/193237

Comprehensive policy review of anti-trafficking projects

Start Date: 1 January 2016

End Date: 30 September 2016

Title: Comprehensive policy review of anti-trafficking projects

Total Amount: EUR 350,000

Funder: European Commission

Abstract: The European Union has a Strategy to eradicate trafficking in human beings to support the implementation of the 2011 Anti-Trafficking Directive. This project contributed to the development of the post-2016 Strategy by comprehensively reviewing all the projects funded by the European Commission since 2004 that concern anti-trafficking for the office of the Anti-Trafficking Coordinator. The study analysed around 300 projects in the context of relevant EU Actions and wider bodies of knowledge.

Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)

Co-applicant(s): Jude Towers (Lancaster, Sociology), Brian Francis (Lancaster, Maths/Stats), Birgit Apitzsch (Duisberg-Essen, Sociology), Jo Armstrong (Lancaster, Sociology), Susie Balderston (Lancaster, Sociology), Adam Fish (Lancaster, Sociology), Claire Hardaker (Lancaster, Linguistics), Liz Kelly (London Met, CWASU), Stuart Kirby (UCLAN), Corinne May-Chahal (Lancaster, Sociology), Emma Palmer (Lancaster, Sociology), Awais Rashid (Lancaster, Computing), Karen Shire (Duisberg-Essen, Sociology), Jackie Taylor (London Met, CWASU).

Key Outputs: Walby, S., et al. (2016). Comprehensive Policy Review of Anti-Trafficking Projects funded by the European Commission. Brussels: European Commission. ISBN 978-92-79-61960-1 doi:10.2837/973893

The gender dimension of trafficking in human beings

Start Date: 31 December 2014

End Date: 30 September 2015

Title: The gender dimension of trafficking in human beings

Total Amount: EUR 250,000

Funder: European Commission

Abstract: This project focused on the gender dimension of trafficking in human beings. The study concluded with recommendations to the EU and Member States regarding how to better implement the EU Directive and Strategy on Trafficking by paying greater attention to its gender dimensions in relation to: services for victims; EU Home Affairs and Justice Agency practices; reducing the demand for the services of victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation; the system of data collection; and, policy coherence and coordination by implementing EU gender equality policies in EU Strategies. Sylvia Walby delivered the keynote address at the Ninth EU Anti-Trafficking Day (Brussels, October 2015). The report was published on 21 March 2016 and launched in the European Parliament, in Brussels.

Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)

Co-applicant(s): Birgit Apitzsch (Duisberg-Essen, Sociology), Jo Armstrong (Lancaster, Sociology), Susie Balderston (Lancaster, Sociology), Karolina Follis (Lancaster, Philosophy, Politics and Religious Studies), Brian Francis (Lancaster, Maths/Stats), Liz Kelly (London Met, CWASU), Corinne May-Chahal (Lancaster, Sociology), Awais Rashid (Lancaster, Computing), Karen Shire (Duisberg-Essen, Sociology), Jude Towers (Lancaster, Sociology), Markus Tünte (Duisberg-Essen, Sociology).

Key Outputs: Walby, S., et al. (2016). Gender Dimension of Trafficking in Human Beings. Brussels: European Commission, Anti-Trafficking Coordinators Office. ISBN 978-92-79-54063-9 doi:10.2837/462884

Guidelines for Member States on how to comply with Istanbul Convention Article 11 on data collection

Start Date: 1 October 2014

End Date: 30 June 2018

Title: Guidelines for Member States on how to comply with Istanbul Convention Article 11 on data collection

Total Amount: EUR 10,000

Funder: The Council of Europe

Abstract: The Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence was signed in Istanbul in 2011 and came into force in 2015. In order to comply with Article 11 of the Convention, the 47 Member States of the Council of Europe need to collect data and conduct research on this violence. The Council of Europe funded this report in order to support Member States by providing practical guidance on: the collection of data from administrative and survey sources; the development of research programmes; and, the measurement framework needed to benchmark progress internationally.

Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)

Key Outputs:
Walby, S. (2016). Ensuring data collection and research on violence against women and domestic violence – Article 11 of the Istanbul Convention. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Walby, S., et al. (2017). The Concept and Measurement of Violence against Women and Men. Bristol: Policy Press.

Is the rate of domestic violence increasing or decreasing? A re-analysis of the British Crime Survey

Start Date: 1 April 2013

End Date: 30 September 2014

Title: Is the rate of domestic violence increasing or decreasing? A re-analysis of the British Crime Survey

Total Amount: GBP 199,000

Funder: Economic and Social Research Council

Abstract: This project re-analysed data from the Crime Survey for England and Wales. The results show that, during the economic crisis, there was an increase in violent crime, reversing the long-run fall. The increase is driven by violence against women committed by domestic relations. The increase is made visible by removing the arbitrary maximum cap of five crimes traditionally imposed by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) on the number of incidents reported to the survey included in published statistics, while attending to volatility by using three-year moving averages.

Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)

Co-applicant(s): Brian Francis (Lancaster, Maths/Stats)

Researcher: Jude Towers (Lancaster, Sociology)

Key Outputs: Walby, Sylvia, Jude Towers, and Brian Francis (2016). ‘Is violent crime increasing or decreasing? A new methodology to measure repeat attacks making visible the significance of gender and domestic relations’, British Journal of Criminology, 56(6): 1203-1234.

Estimating the costs of gender-based violence in the European Union

Start Date: 1 January 2013

End Date: 1 January 2014

Title: Estimating the costs of gender-based violence in the European Union

Total Amount: EURO 58,000

Funder: European Institute for Gender Equality

Abstract: This projected reviewed developments in methodologies for estimating the costs of gender-based violence in order to identify best practice and estimated the costs of gender-based violence within the EU. The project found that gender-based violence costs the EU28 €259 billion each year. This is due to lost economic output because of injuries, the use of public services (e.g. health, criminal justice), and the public’s valuation of the physical and emotional impacts.

Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)

Researcher: Philippa Olive (Lancaster, Sociology)

Key Outputs:Walby, Sylvia and Philippa Olive (2014). Estimating the Costs of Gender-Based Violence in the European Union. Vilnius, Lithuania: European Institute for Gender Equality. ISBN 978-92-9218-499-5 Doi:10.2839/79629

Towards a Directive on violence against women: Analysis of its legal grounds and the cost of violence against women

Start Date: 1 December 2013

End Date: 31 December 2014

Title: Towards a Directive on violence against women: Analysis of its legal grounds and the cost of violence against women

Total Amount: EUR 14,500

Funder: European Parliament, European Value Added Unit

Abstract: This study investigated aspects of the basis for a possible Directive of the EU on Violence Against Women. Building on previous work on costing gender-based violence, the study found that the cost of inaction was considerably greater than the cost of action. It considers the extent to which the Treaties confer on the European Union the legal competence to develop a Directive on Violence against Women, concluding that there is scope for a directive.

Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)

Researcher: Philippa Olive (Lancaster, Sociology)

Key Outputs: Walby, Sylvia and Philippa Olive (2013). The European Added Value of a Directive on Combatting Violence Against Women: Annex 2 Economic Aspects and Legal Perspectives for Action at the European Level. Brussels: European Value Added Unit.

Overview of the worldwide best practices for rape prevention and for assisting women victims of rape

Start Date: 1 January 2012

End Date: 1 January 2013

Title: Overview of the worldwide best practices for rape prevention and for assisting women victims of rape

Total Amount: EUR 68,500

Funder: European Parliament

Abstract: This study reviewed worldwide best policies and practices on the prevention of rape and assistance to victims of rape in order to produce recommendations for the development of a European Union policy. The study addressed strategy, planning and coordination; victim services and healthcare systems; law and the criminal justice system; issues in conflict zones; culture, media and education; the economy; and, issues in the theorisation of prevention. The research was conducted following the award of ‘preferred bidder status’ following a competitive tender in 2011 by the European Parliament for the Women’s Rights and Gender Equality (FEMM) Committee.

Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)

Co-applicant(s): Philippa Olive (Lancaster, Sociology), Jude Towers (Lancaster, Sociology), Brian Francis (Lancaster, Maths/Stats), Sofia Strid (Örebro University, Gender Studies), Andrea Krizsán (Central European University, Policy Studies), Emanuela Lombardo (Madrid Complutense University, Political Science), Corinne May-Chahal (Lancaster, Sociology), Suzanne Franzway (University of South Australia, Sociology and Gender Studies), David Sugarman (Lancaster, Law), and Bina Agarwal (University of Manchester, Development; and Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi).

Key Outputs:
Walby, S., et al. (2015). Stopping Rape: Towards a Comprehensive Policy.  Bristol: Policy Press.

Walby, S., et al. (2013). Overview of the worldwide best practices for rape prevention and for assisting women victims of rape.  Brussels: European Parliament. ISBN 978-92-823-4865-9.  DOI: 10.2861/37950.

Measuring the impact of cuts in public expenditure on the provision of services to prevent violence against women

Start Date: 1 January 2011

End Date: 31 December 2011

Title: Measuring the impact of cuts in public expenditure on the provision of services to prevent violence against women

Total Amount: GBP 3,000

Funders: Trust for London and Northern Rock Foundation

Abstract: This study investigated the impact of cuts in public expenditure in 2010 on the provision of domestic and sexual violence services by Local Authorities. Information about service provision was collected from the specialised service providers. The analysis showed that routine funding from Local Authorities to specialised Third Sector service providers declined following the cuts, especially to smaller providers, even though some smaller specialised national funding streams increased or fluctuated. Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)

Researcher: Jude Towers (Lancaster, Sociology)

Key Outputs: Towers, Jude and Walby, Sylvia (2012). Measuring the impact of cuts in public expenditure on the provision of services to prevent violence against women. Trust for London/Northern Rock Foundation. ISBN 978-1-901373-70-3.

Measuring equality and violence in the UK: Physical and legal security and the criminal justice system

Start Date: 1 January 2009

End Date: 31 December 2009

Title: Measuring equality and violence in the UK: Physical and legal security and the criminal justice system

Total Amount: GBP 30,000

Funder name: UK Equality and Human Rights Commission

Abstract: This is one of two studies contributing to the development of the measurement framework of the UK’s statutory Triennial Review of Equalities, developed by the UK Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC). This study focused on physical and legal security.

Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)

Researchers: Jo Armstrong (Lancaster, Sociology), Sofia Strid (Lancaster, Sociology)

Key Outputs:
Walby, Sylvia, Jo Armstrong, and Sofia Strid (2012). ‘ Developing measures of multiple forms of sexual violence and their contested treatment in the criminal justice system ’ in Sandra L. Walklate and Jennifer Brown (eds.) Handbook on Sexual Violence. London: Willan. pp. 90-114.

Walby, Sylvia, Jo Armstrong, and Sofia Strid (2010). Physical and Legal Security and the Criminal Justice System: A Review of Inequalities.  Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission.

Measuring equality and violence in the UK: Review of equality statistic

Start date: 1 January 2008

End Date: 31 December 2008

Title: Measuring equality and violence in the UK: Review of equality statistics

Total Amount: GBP 42,000

Funder: UK Equality and Human Rights Commission

Abstract: This is one of two studies contributing to the development of the measurement framework of the UK’s statutory Triennial Review of Equalities, developed by the UK Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC). This study mapped over 200 existing equality statistics.

Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Lancaster)
Co-applicant(s): Jo Armstrong (Lancaster, Sociology), Les Humphreys (Lancaster, Law)

Key Outputs:
Walby, Sylvia, Jo Armstrong, and Les Humphreys (2018). Review of Equality Statistics. Research Report: 1. Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission. ISBN: 978 1 84206 074 2.

Walby, Sylvia and Jo Armstrong (2010). ‘Measuring equality: Data and indicators in Britain’, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 13 (3): 237-249. Reprinted in C. Hughes and R. Cohen (eds.) (2010). Feminism Counts: Quantitative Methods and Researching Gender. Oxford: Routledge.

Gender and citizenship in a multicultural context: Quality in gender equality policies (Quing)

Start date: 1 January 2006

End Date: 31 December 2011

Title: Gender and citizenship in a multicultural context: Quality in gender equality policies (Quing)

Total Amount: EUR 4.7 million

Funder: European Commission Framework 6

Abstract: This large European project analysed the quality of gender equality policies in the European Union when meeting the challenges of intersectionality. Policies on gender-based violence were one of the areas of focus, addressing, in particular, the ‘Crenshaw dilemma’ concerning visibility where there are intersecting inequalities. The study encompassed all EU Member States as well as the EU-level, with researchers for each country. The outputs were both theoretical and practical. Prof. Walby was Principle Investigator of the Lancaster Team, and was responsible for focusing on intersectionality and gender equality policies including gender-based violence (EUR 634,000).

Quing Principle-Investigator and Scientific Director: Mieke Verloo (Radboud University, Political Science)

Lancaster Team:

Principle-Investigator for Lancaster: Sylvia Walby (Sociology)

Researchers: Jo Armstrong (Sociology), Sofia Strid (Sociology)

Key Outputs: Walby, Sylvia and Mieke Verloo (eds.) (2012). ‘Intersectionality and the equality architecture in Europe’, Social Politics, 19(4): 433-620.

Estimating the economic and social costs of domestic violence against women

Start date: 1 January 2002

End Date: 31 December 2004

Title: Estimating the economic and social costs of domestic violence against women

Total Amount: GBP 56,000

Funder: Department for Trade and Industry, Women and Equality Unit

Abstract: This study estimated the costs of domestic violence by drawing upon a range of data sources, including the British Crime Survey. The study found that domestic violence costs the UK £23 billion a year. The findings and methodology have been used by the Home Office, other government departments, local government and non-governmental providers of services to estimate the cost of domestic violence (and gender-based violence more generally) and contributed to decision-making over service provision. The methods have been adapted for use in other countries, including New Zealand and Canada, disseminated by the UN (e.g. UN Women in 2011).

Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Leeds)

Key Outputs: Walby, S. (2004). The Cost of Domestic Violence. London: Department of Trade and Industry Women and Equality Unit.

Developing the British Crime Survey (now Crime Survey for England and Wales) to measure domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking

Start Date: 1 January 2000

End Date: 1 January 2003

Title: Developing the British Crime Survey (now Crime Survey for England and Wales) to measure domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking

Total Amount: GBP 10,500

Funder: Home Office

Abstract: This consultancy project led to the design of an innovative self-completion module on domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking for the British Crime Survey. This followed a review, funded by the Nuffield Foundation, of the new wave of national surveys of violence against women. Following the publication of the findings, Prof. Walby was consulted on the development of further population surveys by the Irish National Crime Council, the German Federal Ministry for Family, Women, Seniors and Youth, the EU Fundamental Rights Agency, and the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC).

Principle-Investigator: Sylvia Walby (University of Leeds)

Researchers: Andy Myhill, Jonathan Allen (Home Office)

Key Outputs: Walby, S. and Allen, J. (2004). Domestic Violence, Sexual Assault and Stalking: Findings from the British Crime Survey. Home Office Research Study 276. London: Home Office.