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Software Reliability


(A holistic approach to the dependability analysis and evaluation of control systems involving hardware, software and human resources)

CSR Personnel: Professor Littlewood, Prof. Fenton, Professor Strigini, Mr. Wright, Mr.Veneziano, Mr. Pizza

Contact: Prof Lorenzo Strigini

Funded by EU Human Capital and Mobility Programme, contract No: ERBCHRXCT940577.

Funding to CSR, City University: 88,000 ECU.

Duration: 1995 - 1998.

Summary: Interdisciplinary, collaborative activity seeking to improve the current practice of reliability and safety analysis by integrating considerations of hardware, software and human aspects. Current practice usually considers these three aspects in isolation from each other, as covered by traditionally separate disciplines. Yet, most serious accidents in complex engineered systems involve a combination of human, hardware and software errors.


  • to develop interdisciplinary competences concerning "global system dependability", especially via the training of young researchers
  • to promote the development of integrated methods for dependability analysis and evaluation of critical systems which include hardware, software and human resources.


  • Participation by teams with international reputations in research and applications concerning hardware, software and human reliability and safety
  • Periodic meetings for exchange of information and discussion, co-operation on case studies
  • Exchange of young researchers, to be integrated in the host team on projects with interdisciplinary aspects
  • Dissemination of results


  • Many young researchers are now working in host teams
  • A Summer school was held in September 1998 for students seeking training in interdisciplary, "holistic" safety and reliability issues.

Impact: The beneficiaries of this activity are industry and regulators, through increased availability of personnel with an interdisciplinary view of safety and reliability problems and through guidance material increasing awareness of these interdisciplinary issues. The long-term result will be a contribution towards better safety and more cost-effective means for achieing it.

Partners: ENEA (Italy), IEI CNR (Italy), LAAS CNRS (France), University of Rome (Italy), ARCS (Austria), Edinburgh University (UK), Vrije University (NL), Siena University (Italy), Karlsruhe University (Germany), T V, Hamburg (Germany), Human Reliability Associates Ltd (UK), JRC (EC), CNUCE CNR (Italy), University Tor Vergata (Italy), Texas A&M University (USA).

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version 2.3 Published: 28th Jun 2004