Centre for Health Services Research
  1. Management of Long Term Conditions Group
  2. Research Group for Quality of Care for Older People
  3. Telehealth and Telecare Group
  4. Patient Safety Group
  5. Service User Involvement & Collaboration Group
  6. Health Economics Group
  7. Implementation Research Group
  8. Health Policy Leadership and Management Group
  9. Education for Practice and Research Group
  10. Impact of Disease and Treatments Group
Health Services

Patient Safety Group

The group focuses on two patient safety areas, infection prevention and control and mental health: resuscitation, medication safety and patient safety policy.

The work on infection prevention and control is widely cited in the academic literature, and professional guidance, for example, The World Health Organization Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care and Their Consensus Recommendations. A paper by Gould, Drey and Creedon Routine hand hygiene audit by direct observation: has nemesis arrived was selected as the best review in the Journal of Hospital Infection in 2011.

The group's patient safety focused The Never Events policy framework has an expanded list of events to avoid and is being deployed nationally.


PhD Students

  • Nicolas Castle
  • Sile Creedon
  • Dave Flinton
  • Karen Harrold
  • Annette Jeanes
  • Catherine Walsh
  • Soph Willis


2012 Patient experience of MRSA screening. Drey N City University London Pump Priming. £3,600

2010-2012. Research explores how healthcare managers make sense and use evidence when adopting and implementing new technologies to help fight hospital infections. Robust comparative case studies in nine Hospital NHS Trusts across England - innovations from technology (coated catheters) to service design (temporary isolation facilities). Kyratsis Yiannis. (NIHR HSDR £284,000

2009-2010. Researching the adoption, procurement and implementation of innovative technologies to help combat Health Care Associated Infections by 12 NHS Trusts across all ten Strategic Health Authorities in England. Kyratsis Yiannis Department of Health - NHS Purchasing and Supply Agency £100,000



Charani E; Castro-Sanchez E; Sevdalis N; Kyratsis Y; Drumright L; Shah N; Holmes A. (2013) Understanding the Determinants of Antimicrobial Prescribing within hospitals: The role of 'Prescribing Etiquette'. Clinical Infectious Diseases 57(2):188-196

Gould D, Drey N. Types of interventions used to improve hand hygiene compliance and prevent healthcare associated infection. Journal of Infection Prevention 14(3):88-93 May 2013

Gould, D. and Drey, N. Student nurses’ experiences of infection prevention and control during clinical placements. American Journal of Infection Control 2013, 41(9):760-763.

Harold, K. Gould, D. Drey, N. The efficacy of saline washout technique in the management of exfoliant and vesicant chemotherapy extravasation: an historical case series report. DOI: 10.1111/ecc.12023. (2013) European Journal of Cancer Care 22, 169–178.

Heyman, B., Godin, P.M., Reynolds, L., Davies, J.P. (2013). Assessing the probability of patients reoffending after discharge from low to medium secure forensic mental health services: An inductive prevention paradox. Health, Risk and Society, 15 (1), pp. 84-102

Ross, S., Ryan, C., Duncan, E.M., Francis, J.J., Johnston, M., Ker, J.S., Lee, A.J., (...), Bond, C. (2013). Perceived causes of prescribing errors by junior doctors in hospital inpatients: A study from the PROTECT programme. BMJ Quality and Safety, 22 (2), pp. 97-102

Ryan C, Ross S, Davey P, Duncan EM, Fielding S, Francis J, Johnston M, Ker J, Lee AJ, MacLeod MJ, Maxwell S, McKay G, McLay J, Webb DJ, Bond C (2013). Junior doctors’ perceptions of their self-efficacy in prescribing, their prescribing errors and the possible causes of errors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 2103. [Epub ahead of print] DOI: 10.1111/bcp.12154.


Duncan, E.M., Francis, J.J., Johnston, M., Davey, P., Maxwell, S., McKay, G.A., McLay, J., (...), Lee, A. (2012). Learning curves, taking instructions, and patient safety: Using a theoretical domains framework in an interview study to investigate prescribing errors among trainee doctors. Implementation Science, 7 (1), art. no. 86

Kyratsis, Y., Ahmad, R., Holmes, A. (2012) Technology adoption and implementation in organisations: comparative case studies of 12 English NHS Trusts. BMJ Open 2(2)


D. J. Gould, N. S. Drey, S. Creedon. Routine hand hygiene audit by direct observation: has nemesis arrived? Journal of Hospital Infection. 2011 Apr; 77(4): 290-293.


Gould DJ, Chudleigh JH, Moralejo D, Drey N. Interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance in patient care. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD005186. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005186.pub3]


D. J. Gould, N. S. Drey, M. Millar, M. Wilks, M. Chamney. Patients and the public: knowledge, sources of information and perceptions about health care-associated infection. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2009 May; 72: 1-8.

Gould D, Drey N. Preventing the spread of acute respiratory viral infections. Nurs Stand. 2009 Oct; 24(5): 44-9.


D.J. Gould, N.S. Drey. Hand Hygiene Technique. Nursing Standard. 2008 Apr; 22 (34): 42-46.

D.J. Gould, N.S. Drey, D. Moralejo, J. Grimshaw, J. Chudleigh. Systematic review : Interventions to improve hand hygiene compliance in patient care. Journal of Hospital Infection 2008 Mar; 68: 193-202.