Centre for Health Services Research
  1. Management of Long Term Conditions Group
  2. Research Group for Quality of Care for Older People
  3. Telehealth and Telecare Group
  4. Patient Safety Group
  5. Service User Involvement & Collaboration Group
  6. Health Economics Group
  7. Implementation Research Group
  8. Health Policy Leadership and Management Group
  9. Education for Practice and Research Group
  10. Impact of Disease and Treatments Group
Health Services

Implementation Research Group

Implementation Research is a burgeoning field of enquiry, defined as the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings and other evidence-based practices into routine practice, and hence to improve the quality of health care.

The Group has strong links with the School's other research groupings for example Optometry, Care for Older People, Telehealth & Telecare and with external collaborators in Allied Health, Primary Care, Pharmacy and Intensive Care.


PhD Students

  • Brittannia Abdul-Aziz
  • Jennifer Bernard
  • Andrea Patey
  • Mandeep Sekhon


10/2013 – 09/2018 - The development and evaluation of enhanced audit and feedback interventions to increase the uptake of evidence-based transfusion practice. Stanworth S, Foy R, Francis JJ, Prior M, Glidewell L, Farrin A, Grant-Casey J, Michie S, Rowley M, Murphy M, Campbell H. NIHR Programme Grants for Applied Research; £1,983,232

10/2013-03/2015. Intensive Care Rehabilitation Study (ICARus): Barriers to early physical rehabilitation in the ICU- a Delphi study. Cuthbertson B, Fan E, Francis JJ, Goddard S, Kho M, Rubenfeld G. Canadian Institutes of Health Reseach; CAD$73,475

10/2013 – 09/2014. Self-Formulated Conditional Plans for Changing Health Behaviour: A Systematic Review. Squires J, Tonelli M, Grimshaw JM, Bond C, Francis J, Fraser C, Hillmer M, Paprica A, Patey A, Presseau J, Vachon B, Yu C. Canadian Institutes of Health Research; CAD$£99,852;

2011 Trauma Recovery: Identified Priorities by Stakeholders (TRIPS). L Aitken, W Chaboyer, T Richmond, M Schuetz, J Whitty, B Douglas NCCTRC Trauma and Disaster Research Management Grant, $75,000

9/2010 - 08/2014 - Participation in physical play and leisure in children with motor impairments. Kolehmainen N, Francis J, Owen C, Ramsay C, McKee L. MRC £304,645

2010-2012. Research explores how healthcare managers make sense and use evidence when adopting and implementing new technologies to help fight hospital infections. Robust comparative case studies in nine Hospital NHS Trusts across England - innovations from technology (coated catheters) to service design (temporary isolation facilities). Kyratsis Yiannis. National Institute for Health Research Health Service & Delivery Research Project (NIHR HSDR) £284,000

03/2010 – 09/2012 - A web-based platform to support the development, delivery, modelling and evaluation of complex interventions using Intervention Modelling Experiments. Treweek S, Francis J, Sullivan F, Ricketts, Jones, Pitts N, Bonetti D, Eccles MP. Chief Scientist Office; £175,000

10/2010 – 03/2012 - Selective Decontamination of the Digestive tract in critically ill patients treated in Intensive Care Unit (The SuDDICU study) (UK). Francis JJ, Bellingan G, Campbell MK, Cuthbertson B, Eccles MP, Johnston M, MacLennan G, Ramsay CR, Rose L, Rowan K, Shulman R, Wilson P. NIHR HTA Programme: £213,907

10/2010 – 03/2012 - The efficacy, cost-effectiveness and ecological impact of Selective Decontamination of the Digestive tract in critically ill patients treated in the Intensive Care Unit (The SuDDICU study) PHASE 1- An exploratory study of the perceived risks, benefits and barriers to the use of SDD in Canadian critical care. Cuthbertson B, Burns K, Cook D, Dodek P, Francis J, Grimshaw J, Hall R, Johnston L, Kanji S, Marshall J, McIntyre L, Muscedere, Pagliarello, Webster. Canadian Institutes of Health Research: CAD$196,322

10/2010 – 03/2012 - An exploratory study of perceived risks, benefits and barriers to the use of Selective Decontamination of the Digestive tract in Australasian ICUs (SuDDICU). Seppelt I, Myburgh J, Finfer SR, Lipman J, Paterson DL, Cuthbertson B, Francis J, Glass, P. Intensive Care Foundation (Australia): AUD$95,600; and Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) Foundation: AUD$46,200

04/2009 – 03/2014 - Improving evidence-based care and the outcomes of patients with traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury through a program to facilitate knowledge transfer and exchange. Gruen R, Green S, Harris C, Kaye A, Marshall S, Sherry L, Grimshaw J, Michie S, Francis J, Lavis J, Buchan H, Zobel J, Tavender E, Cameron P, Cooper J, Bragge P, Morokoff A, Clavisi O, McKenzie JE, McDonald S. Transport Accident Commission, Victoria, Australia: AUD$4,399,539

06/2009 – 02/2011 - Research into the prevalence and causes of prescribing errors made by junior doctors. Bond C, Ross S, Lee A J, McLay J, MacLeod M J, Johnston M, Francis J, Davey P, Ker J, Maxwell S, Webb D, McKay G A. Chief Scientist Office: £216,843

2009-2010. Researching the adoption, procurement and implementation of innovative technologies to help combat Health Care Associated Infections by 12 NHS Trusts across all ten Strategic Health Authorities in England. Kyratsis Yiannis Department of Health - NHS Purchasing and Supply Agency £100,000

02/2008 – 01/2012 - Translating Research into Practice: Guidance-based Implementation of Dental Evidence (TRIADS). Clarkson J, Ramsay C, Black I, Bonetti D, Eccles MP, Eldridge J, Francis J, Haig A, MacKenzie, Michie S, Pitts N, Rennie, Tilley C, Vale L, Young I. NHS Education for Scotland (NES): £449,910

06-08/2008 Improving the health outcomes of people following traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury through a program to increase the use of research evidence in practice. Gruen R, Green S, Harris, Kaye, Grimshaw J, Michie S, Francis J, Lavis J, Buchan, Zobel, Travender, Cameron, Cooper, Adolph. Victorian Neurotrauma Initiative (Australia). AUD$9,800

01/2008 – 08/2013 - Canada PRIME plus: Selecting individual and organisational theories for interventions to change clinical practice. Grimshaw J, Brouwers M, Driedger M, Eccles MP, Francis J, Godin G, Hanna S, Hux J, Johnston M, Legare F, Lemyre L, Pomey MP, Sales A, Zwarenstein M. Canadian Institutes of Health Research: CAD$604,405

2007-2010 Improving the care of people with acute low back pain by allied health professionals: a cluster randomized controlled trial. (ALIGN project). Australian NH & MRC. :Green S, McKenzie J, Grimshaw J, Mortimer D, Keating J, Walker B, Michie S, Francis J, O’Connor D. AUD$653,688

09/2007-08/2008 A web-based tool to support the development. Delivery, modelling and evaluation of complex interventions: Intervention Modelling Experiments (IMEs). CSO Small Grant scheme. £50,000

03/2007-11/2008. Interventions to optimise the practices of transfusion (‘INTOPT’)- Understanding transfusion prescribing behaviour in two clinical areas. Stanworth S, Eccles M, Hyde C, Grimshaw J, Francis J, Johnston M. Dept of Health to Oxford Radcliffe Hospitals NHS Trust. £91,180



Curran J, Brehaut J, Patey AM, Osmond M., Stiell I, Grimshaw JM. (2013). Understanding the Canadian adult CT head rule trial: use of the theoretical domains framework for process evaluation. Implementation Science, 8:25. (DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-8-2523433082) 

Elovainio, M., Steen, N., Presseau, J., Francis, J., Hrisos, S., Hawthorne, G., Johnston, M., (...), Eccles, M.P. (2013). Is organizational justice associated with clinical performance in the care for patients with diabetes in primary care? Evidence from the improving quality of care in diabetes study Family Practice, 30 (1), pp. 31-39

French, S.D., McKenzie, J.E., O'Connor, D.A., Grimshaw, J.M., Mortimer, D., Francis, J.J., Michie, S., (...), Green, S.E. (2013). Evaluation of a Theory-Informed Implementation Intervention for the Management of Acute Low Back Pain in General Medical Practice: The IMPLEMENT Cluster Randomised Trial, PLoS ONE8 (6), art. no. e65471

McCleary N, Duncan E, Stewart F, Francis JJ (2013). Active ingredients are reported more often for pharmacologic than non-pharmacologic interventions: an illustrative review of reporting practices in titles and abstracts. Trials 2013, 14:146. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-14-146


Bussières, A.E., Patey, A.M., Francis, J.J., Sales, A.E., Grimshaw, J.M. (2012). Identifying factors likely to influence compliance with diagnostic imaging guideline recommendations for spine disorders among chiropractors in North America: a focus group study using the Theoretical Domains Framework. Implementation Science, 7(1):82

Campbell, S.E., Azuara-Blanco, A., Campbell, M.K., Francis, J.J., Greene, A.C., Ramsay, C.R., Burr, J.M. (2012). Developing the specifications of an open angle glaucoma screening intervention in the United Kingdom: a Delphi approach. BMC health services research, 12, pp. 447

Entwistle, V., Firnigl, D., Ryan, M., Francis, J., Kinghorn, P. (2012). Which experiences of health care delivery matter to service users and why? A critical interpretive synthesis and conceptual map. Journal of Health Services Research and Policy, 17(2), pp. 70-78

French, S.D., Green, S.E., O'Connor, D.A., McKenzie, J.E., Francis, J.J., Michie, S., Buchbinder, R., (...), Grimshaw, J.M. (2012). Developing theory-informed behaviour change interventions to implement evidence into practice: a systematic approach using the Theoretical Domains Framework. Implementation Science, 7(1), art. no. 38

Kolehmainen, N., Francis, J.J. (2012). Specifying content and mechanisms of change in interventions to change professionals' practice: an illustration from the Good Goals study in occupational therapy. Implementation Science, 7 (1), art. no. 100

Kyratsis, Y., Ahmad, R., Holmes, A. (2012) Making sense of evidence in management decisions: the role of research-based knowledge on innovation adoption and implementation in healthcare. Study protocol. Implementation Science 7(1):22

McSherry, L.A., Dombrowski, S.U., Francis, J.J., Murphy, J., Martin, C.M., O'Leary, J.J., Sharp, L. for the ATHENS Group  (2012). 'It's a can of worms': Understanding primary care practitioners' behaviours in relation to HPV using the theoretical domains framework. Implementation Science, 7:73 doi:10.1186/1748-5908-7-73

Patey, A.M., Islam, R., Francis, J.J., Bryson, G.L., Grimshaw, J.M., Driedger, M., Eccles, M., (...), Sales, A. (2012). Anesthesiologists' and surgeons' perceptions about routine pre-operative testing in low-risk patients: Application of the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify factors that influence physicians' decisions to order pre-operative tests. Implementation Science, 7(1), art. no. 52

R., Tinmouth, A.T., Francis, J.J., Brehaut, J.C., Born, J., Stockton, C., Stanworth, S.J., (...), Grimshaw, J.M. (2012). A cross-country comparison of intensive care physicians' beliefs about their transfusion behaviour: A qualitative study using the theoretical domains framework. Islam, Implementation Science, 7 (1), art. no. 93, ID: 4D8E2A6F-44BB-421A-B41F-0D95A1810023

Treweek, S., Barnett, K., MacLennan, G., Bonetti, D., Eccles, M.P., Francis, J.J., Jones, C., (...), Sullivan, F. (2012). E-mail invitations to general practitioners were as effective as postal invitations and were more efficient. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 65 (7), pp. 793-797


Eccles, M.P., Hrisos, S., Francis, J.J., Stamp, E., Johnston, M., Hawthorne, G., Steen, N., (...), Hunter, M. (2011). Instrument development, data collection, and characteristics of practices, staff, and measures in the Improving Quality of Care in Diabetes (iQuaD) Study. Implementation Science, 6:61

Kolehmainen, N., Francis, J.J., Ramsay, C.R., Owen, C., McKee, L., Ketelaar, M., Rosenbaum, P.  (2011). Participation in physical play and leisure: Developing a theory- and evidence-based intervention for children with motor impairments. BMC Pediatrics, 11:100 2011

Treweek, S., Ricketts, I.W., Francis, J., Eccles, M., Bonetti, D., Pitts, N.B., MacLennan, G., (...), Barnett, K. (2011). Developing and evaluating interventions to reduce inappropriate prescribing by general practitioners of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections: A randomised controlled trial to compare paper-based and web-based modelling experiments. Implementation Science, 6:16

Vranjkovic A, Crawley AM, Patey A, Angel JB, (2011). IL-7-dependent STAT-5 activation and CD8+ T-cell proliferation are impaired in HIV infection. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 89 (4): 499-506. (doi:10.1189/jlb.0710430)

Walker, B.F., French, S.D., Page, M.J., O'Connor, D.A., McKenzie, J.E., Beringer, K., Murphy, K., (...), Green, S.E. (2011). Management of people with acute low-back pain: A survey of Australian chiropractors. Chiropractic and Manual Therapies, 19(1):29 2011


Clarkson, J.E., Ramsay, C.R., Eccles, M.P., Eldridge, S., Grimshaw, J.M., Johnston, M., Michie, S., (...), Vale, L. (2010). The translation research in a dental setting (TRiaDS) programme protocol. Implementation Science, 5 (1), art. no. 57

Ivers, N.M., Tu, K., Francis, J., Barnsley, J., Shah, B., Upshur, R., Kiss, A., (...), Zwarenstein, M. (2010). Feedback GAP: Study protocol for a cluster-randomized trial of goal setting and action plans to increase the effectiveness of audit and feedback interventions in primary care. Implementation Science 5 (1), art. no. 98

McKenzie, J.E., O'Connor, D.A., Page, M.J., Mortimer, D.S., French, S.D., Walker, B.F., Keating, J.L., (...), Green, S.E. (2010). Improving the care for people with acute low-back pain by allied health professionals (the ALIGN trial): A cluster randomised trial protocol, Implementation Science, 5:86


Francis, J.J., Stockton, C., Eccles, M.P., Johnston, M., Cuthbertson, B.H., Grimshaw, J.M., Hyde, C., (...), Stanworth, S.J. (2009). Evidence-based selection of theories for designing behaviour change interventions: Using methods based on theoretical construct domains to understand clinicians' blood transfusion behaviour  British Journal of Health Psychology, 14 (4), pp. 625-646

Gilby KL, Sydserff S, Patey AM, Thorne V, St-Onge V, Jans J, McIntyre DC (2009). Postnatal Epigenetic Influences on Seizure Susceptibility in Seizure-Prone Versus Seizure-Resistant Rat Strains. Behavioral Neuroscience. Apr; 123(2):337-346. (doi: 10.1037/a0014730)


Francis, J.J. (2008). Importance of behaviour in interventions. BMJ337 (7679), pp. 1128

Grimshaw, J.M., Mortimer, D., Michie, S., Francis, J., (...), Green, S.E. (2008). IMPLEmenting a clinical practice guideline for acute low back pain evidence-based manageMENT in general practice (IMPLEMENT): Cluster randomised controlled trial study protocol    Implementation Science, 3:11

Hrisos, S., Eccles, M., Johnston, M., Francis, J., Kaner, E.F., Steen, N., Grimshaw, J. (2008). An intervention modelling experiment to change GPs' intentions to implement evidence-based practice: Using theory-based interventions to promote GP management of upper respiratory tract infection without prescribing antibiotics #2. BMC Health Services Research, 8, art. no. 10

Hrisos, S., Eccles, M., Johnston, M., Francis, J., Kaner, E.F.S., Steen, N., Grimshaw, J. (2008).  Developing the content of two behavioural interventions: Using theory-based interventions to promote GP management of upper respiratory tract infection without prescribing antibiotics #1. BMC Health Services Research, 8 , art. no. 11McKenzie, J.E., French, S.D., O'Connor, D.A.,