Centre for Applied Vision Research
  1. Visual Neuroscience and Psychophysics
  2. Ocular Optics and Instrumentation
  3. Ophthalmic Assessments and Patient Outcomes following Ophthalmic Interventions
  4. Visual Development and Plasticity
  5. Ophthalmic Public Health
  6. Measurement Techniques in Vision
  1. Individual tests

CRATO (Colour Requirements for Air Traffic Operators)

Colour is used extensively in air traffic control, as well as other visually demanding occupations, and colour signals can make targets more conspicuous, aid in segmentation and grouping operations and be used to signal specific information by means of colour naming.

CRATOThis test measures how colour signals affect visual performance by measuring the time in seconds it takes to find a colour target on a screen. It is something we are further developing in order to distinguish set protocols and ‘normal’ limits.

What is unique about CRATO?

It is completely unique to City, University of London.

Who can benefit from it?

It is a practical test for air traffic controllers with colour vision deficiencies, to determine whether they will be able to perform their job competently and safely.

Other relevant tests

Applicants may be referred to take the CRATO test following results from the CAD test, and may also benefit from taking the PAPI test.